top of page

The Plot Thickens

Hi, I’m Karen Meadows. Thank you for visiting The Plot Thickens.

I’m lucky enough to be the tenant of one of fifty large allotment gardens in the middle of the small and beautiful stone town of Stamford in England’s East Midlands. The gardens were first created by Brownlow Cecil, 4th Marquess of Exeter in the mid 1800s and their layout has remained virtually unchanged. Between the plots we have some 200 old apple trees, many of them rare varieties, and in 2017 Natural England awarded the gardens heritage orchard status.

Over the centuries at least 500 people have worked these plots. Follow our quest to discover who they were, what they grew, and what shenanigans they got up to. Be prepared for numerous diversions and musings along the way about gardening life here in our quiet (and occasionally not so quiet) little corner of Stamford.

If you haven’t discovered our website yet, do head over to Waterfurlong Orchard Gardens, where you will find a wealth of information about our gardens and gardeners, past and present.

And now for the small print...

The Plot Thickens is a non-commercial blog. All recommendations are based on personal preference and my own or our other gardeners’ own experience. Payments or free goods are not accepted in return for reviews of products and services. If an exception is made this will be clearly stated.

All words and images, unless otherwise credited, are my own. If you would like to copy text or images, I’d kindly ask that The Plot Thickens gets a positive mention and a link back to this blog.

Recent Posts

Our 2019 Apple DNA Test Results

Last summer, proceeds from the honesty box stall enabled us to send samples from seven heritage Waterfurlong apple trees for DNA testing. We asked our visiting apple guru, Denis Smith, to select the specimens that most intrigued or baffled him. After months of waiting, the results are finally in! We have one disappointment, two confirmations, three fascinating rarities and one continuing mystery!

So, in reverse order of excitement:

What we thought was the lovely and unusual French Belle de Pontoise has disappointingly turned out to be good old Blenheim Orange. Now, Blenheim Orange is a delightful apple and this is clearly an unusual strain of it, but it's not the rarity we had hoped for.

Denis was spot on in his identification of this 17th century French or Dutch cooking apple.

We're still not sure how a variety rarely found outside its native Kent arrived in Waterfurlong, but the DNA analysis has confirmed Denis's identification.

This tree is in its final years and Denis's best guess was Lord Suffield or Manx Codlin (both of which have been found on other Waterfurlong plots). DNA testing shows it is in fact Lord Grosvenor, a similar and equally rare codlin variety. This is the only known Lord Grosvenor tree in the Stamford area.

Here we have puzzle upon puzzle. One of our gardens used to have an unusual (unidentified) dessert apple grafted onto an equally unusual and ancient rootstock. When the main tree died the rootstock started shooting, producing large, delicious cooking apples. Denis's best guess was the French Calville Blanc d'Hiver, but something didn't feel quite right to him. Testing has revealed an even stranger story, for the rootstock turns out to be Ontario - the first named Canadian variety. How and why would an obscure Canadian apple, barely known in England and listed by no local nursery, have ended up as an experimental rootstock in Waterfurlong?

Ontario was bred in about 1833 by Charles Arnold, a Bedfordshire nurseryman who had just emigrated to the small town of Paris in Ontario Province. Like Waterfurlong's most famous gardener, Thomas Laxton, Arnold was admired by Charles Darwin for his propagation of peas and strawberries, and regularly exchanged promising plants with leading horticulturalists back across the Atlantic. Did Arnold send scions of Ontario to Laxton or another of Stamford's gentleman gardeners? We will probably never know, but it is a distinct possibility.

The jury was always out on this curious apple that tastes similar to Blenheim Orange, but on a tree half its size. The closest Denis had seen to it was the 16th century Nonpareil, but we awaited the results with interest and were not disappointed! This apple turns out to be the extremely rare Brenchley Pippin, once grown in a tiny village near Tunbridge Wells and never widely cultivated, owing to its weakness and susceptibility to wind damage. Denis is hoping to propagate new stock from our Waterfurlong tree, helping to save Brenchley Pippin from extinction.

What we believe to be the true Nelson's Codlin

In one of our plots stands the most gorgeous codlin tree. Every year it is smothered with showy blossom, followed by huge, perfect, oblong fruits that make the most delicious sauce, juice and crisps. Ever since he saw it, this tree has intrigued Denis. After considerable research he felt sure it was the great rarity, Nelson's Codlin, named not after the admiral but after 18th century Wesleyan preacher, John Nelson.

Fruit from the tree has travelled with Denis to many an apple fair and excited a great deal of interest. One day last year Denis visited the National Fruit Collection in Brogdale and found 'their' Nelson's Codlin. It did not look like ours, and ours looked a lot closer to the only known illustration and description.

We were therefore unsurprised when the DNA test results came back as 'unknown'. Denis believes we have the true Nelson's Codlin and the challenge is now to convince Brogdale of that! Watch this space (but with patience ... these things seem to take a very long time ...)!


Below are the 55 heritage varieties we have so far found across those Waterfurlong gardens that have been checked - there are still plots to which Denis has been unable to gain access. This long and varied list is the reason

Waterfurlong remains the largest traditional orchard site in this part of the country, and every year brings new and fascinating discoveries.

Varieties marked * have been DNA tested. You can find a photograph and profile of each apple on the website.

Allington Pippin

Annie Elizabeth

Ashmead's Kernel

Barnack Beauty

Beauty of Bath

Belle de Boskoop

Betty Geeson

Blenheim Orange

Bramley's Seedling

Brenchley Pippin*

Charles Ross

Cornish Aromatic

Cox's Orange Pippin

Crimson Bramley


Dumelow's Seedling

Ellison's Orange

Gascoyne's Scarlet

Irish Peach

James Grieve

John Standish


Keswick Codlin

Lady Sudeley

Lady's Delight*

Lane's Prince Albert

Laxton's Fortune

Laxton's Superb


London Pippin*

(Lord Burghley - now fallen)

Lord Derby

Lord Grosvenor*

Lord Hindlip

Lord Lambourne

Lord Suffield

Manx Codlin


Mère de Ménage

Merton Beauty


Nelson's Codlin (the original?)

Newton Wonder

Northern Greening


Peasgood's Nonsuch

Queen Caroline

Red Lady Sudeley

Red Victoria

Ribston Pippin



Tydeman's Early Worcester

Warner's King

Worcester Pearmain

Copyright © Karen Meadows 2020

bottom of page